|Title||Academic Performance of Students after Receiving a Spectacle Prescription|
|Author, Co-Author||Kimberly Renner, Jeffrey Walline|
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of spectacle prescription on school performance of inner city children.
Methods: Eye exams were performed on Oyler School kindergarten to 12th grade students if they failed vision screenings, their teacher referred them for an eye exam, or their parents requested an exam during the ‘13-‘14 school year. For students who were prescribed spectacles, we compared the average grade point average (GPA, out of 4.0) for the one quarter preceding the exam to the two quarters following the exam.
Results: Of the 238 students examined, 129 (54.2%) were prescribed spectacles. The average age of those who were prescribed glasses was 10.7 ± 3.5 years, the average spherical equivalent refractive error was +0.01 ± 2.57 D (range +8.50 to –13.25), and 53.1% were female. Of the spectacles prescribed, the largest refractive error component was myopia 42.6%, hyperopia 17.8%, and astigmatism 36.4% of the time. Overall, the average GPA of students during the one quarter prior to receiving a spectacle prescription was 1.95 ± 1.07, and it was 2.08 ± 0.95 during the two quarters afterward (paired t-test, p = 0.19). Comparing myopes, hyperopes and astigmats, the average GPA of students during the two quarters prior to receiving a spectacle prescription was 2.13 ± 1.13, 1.54 ± 1.21, and 1.71 ± 1.17 and it was 2.12 ± 0.97, 1.91 ± 1.02, and 1.83 ± 0.93 during the two quarters afterward respectively (paired t-test, p = 0.98, 0.34, 0.50).
Conclusions: Overall, there was little change but nonetheless improvement in the GPA of students receiving spectacles. Although it was not statistically significant, the GPA of hyperopic children who received spectacles improved 0.37 points. Given alpha = 0.05 and a standard deviation of 1.21, we only had 13% power to detect a change in GPA of 0.3 with a sample size of 9 hyperopes, so a larger sample size is necessary to confirm the improved GPA.
|Affiliation of Co-Authors||The Ohio State University College of Optometry|