The Development of the Dizziness, Imbalance and Vision Assessment (DIVA) Questionnaire

Title The Development of the Dizziness, Imbalance and Vision Assessment (DIVA) Questionnaire
Author, Co-Author Deborah Armstrong, Alison Alderson, David Elliott
Topic Functional Vision/Pediatrics
Program Number
Ballroom A-B
University of Bradford

Deborah Armstrong, Alison J Alderson, David B Elliott
School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Bradford, UK

Purpose: A systematic review of the literature indicated that there is a link between dizziness and vision (Armstrong et al, 2016), but there is minimal literature on the topic. This study sought to develop an instrument to identify and quantify visually caused dizziness.

Methods: The process identified by Pesudovs et al. (2007) for developing new questionnaires was followed: Items were identified using a comprehensive literature review, followed by interviews with people who had problems due to dizziness and with experts in the field of dizziness and vision. This led to the development of a draft questionnaire, which was critiqued by two focus groups of professionals in dizziness and vision and patients with dizziness, leading to the development of a pilot questionnaire.

Results: The literature review identified 120 possible items, which was reduced to 77 items from interviews with professionals and patients. The professional focus group discarded duplicate and irrelevant items, reducing them to 49, and introduced three overarching categories to describe the effect of dizziness (frequency, severity and bothersomeness) following the example of McAlinden et al. (2010). The focus group of patients deemed the term ‘bothersomeness’ redundant and it was removed from the resulting 23 item pilot questionnaire. Questions concerning visual triggers of dizziness and coping strategies were included in a separate questionnaire.

Conclusions: A 23-item pilot DIVA questionnaire has been developed and is currently being completed. Data from the pilot questionnaire will be Rasch analysed to develop a final Rasch-scored questionnaire.

This research was funded by The College of Optometrists

Affiliation of Co-Authors University of Bradford, University of Bradford