Optometry and Vision Science (OVS) Announces - July 2015
Coming in the July 2015 Optometry & Vision Science
Here are brief highlights. The online and printed copy will be available early-July. E-Publication Ahead-of-Print now available for all these articles at http://journals.lww.com/optvissci
Anthony J. Adams, OD, PhD, FAAO Editor-in-Chief
Giants and Great Collaborators: Prentice Medalist Recounts
The 2014 Charles F. Prentice Medalist recounts his 50-year journey in research. The lessons and major impacts on him provide enlightening lessons on the power of collaboration and determination for all readers. Brien Holden is arguably the most effective international voice of optometry in research and its optometric impact around the world.
Lysozyme in Soft Contact Lenses
Lysozyme is an antibacterial protein which is found in a relatively high concentration in the human tear film and it has a great affinity for hydrogel lenses. Our authors review suggests that for modern materials that are replaced in less than 4 weeks, the deposition of certain tear components such as lysozyme and lactoferrin on contact lenses may actually be beneficial to lens wear.
US Contact Lens Prescribing 2002-2014
A survey of contact lens prescribing in the USA between 2002 and 2014 reveals the predominant use of soft contact lenses, the rising popularity of silicone hydrogel materials, and an increasing use of toric designs and daily disposable lenses.
Model Blink Cell Tests Soft Contact Lens Spoilage
Our authors create an in-vitro model-blink cell that reproduces in-vivo fouling of soft contact lens (SCL). Model tear lipid directly contacts the lens surface after forced aqueous rupture, mirroring the pre-lens tear-film breakup during interblink. They believe this provides a reliable laboratory tool for screening new antifouling lens materials, surface coatings, and care solutions.
Artificial Tear Solution and Protein Adsorption
The authors compare the adsorption of lysozyme, lactoferrin, and albumin to various contact lens materials, between single protein solutions and a multi-component artificial tear solution. They observe competitive adsorption effects and compare the reversibility across different lens materials.
Conjunctiva after Pterygium Excision
Mitomycin C and limbo-conjunctival autograft seem to be a good adjuvant therapy in pterygium surgery. Impression cytology, one month after lesion excision, confirmed a clear minimization of the drug cytological toxicity due to the healing promotion induced by the graft. The authors propose Mitomycin C, in optimal concentration and exposure, associated with limbo-conjunctival autograft could be a good clinical option to minimize pterygium recurrence.
Smaller Incisions for Phacoemulsification
Post cataract surgery, corneal astigmatism is directly proportional to incision length in phacoemulsification, rationalizing attempts to reduce the incision size. The authors found that the visual outcome for corneal microincisions of 2.2 mm and standard 2.75mm incisions in phacoemulsification were comparable, particularly regarding surgically induced astigmatism.
Predicting Refractive Error from Corneal Toricity in Down Syndrome
The authors study the relationship between objective measures of whole-eye versus corneal astigmatism in individuals with Down syndrome with ages spanning 6 decades. Unlike a previous study, they find a strong correlation between corneal and whole-eye astigmatism in Down syndrome compared to the age and gender-matched control group. Corneal toricity is thus predictive of overall refractive status.
Strabismus Detection is Based on Cornea and Lid Margin Relationship
The authors simulated strabismus deviation with conceptualized drawings of eyes. On a monitor, 8 different ocular deviations in increments of 6 prism diopters (PD) of horizontal or vertical deviations were simulated. Nine ophthalmology residents were asked to identify the strabismus and were less influenced in their choice by ocular alignment than by the lid margin and cornea relationship.
Visual Acuity Assessed By Monitoring Visual Fixation
As part of developing an automated measure of visual acuity in infants the authors used an infra-red gaze tracking measure in both adults and infants, comparing the gaze tracking method to current methods. They feel their study shows that visual acuity measures with tracking fixation could provide an accurate and speedy measure.
Is Pupil Size Influenced by Refractive Error?
While it is widely assumed, clinically and anecdotally, that myopic individuals have larger pupils than emmetropic and hyperopic individuals. Our authors found refractive error has no influence upon pupil diameter in 60 young adults of varying refractive error. They suggest the pupil is primarily driven by the pupillary light reflex and by retinal blur.
Corneal Deformation Responses in Normal and Keratoconic Eyes
Compared to normal controls, and adjusted for age, 12 keratoconus participants eyes were significantly different in corneal deformation amplitude and radius of curvature, as expected. The authors believe that the ultra-high-speed Scheimpflug camera (Corvis ST) showed adequate repeatability for measurements in both groups.
Pre-Retinal Hemorrhage with Coil Embolization of a Cerebral Aneurysm
As our Clinical Editor, Larry Alexander, notes "Pre-retinal or Sub-internal Limiting Membrane hemorrhage (Sub-ILM) is a dramatic clinical presentation with symptoms dependent on location. The authors present a laser alternative to wait-and-watch management or the more invasive surgical alternative for a more rapid resolution. The condition is not rare.”
Endophthalmitis as Retinal Vasculitis with Prostatic Abscess
This interesting report of a disorder is rare, yet it illustrates the importance of diagnostic testing in any grossly inflamed eye. The haziness of the fundus montage reveals the extreme inflammatory component both in the vitreous and the retina. Inflammation in the vitreous and retina necessitates a careful examination and a rapid diagnosis and management to avert a disaster. The diagnosis is usually not obvious.
Corneal Bullous Epithelial Detachment in Diabetic Cataract Surgery
The intimate relationship between corneal metabolism and diabetes is understood. In this case, the occurrence of intraoperative corneal epithelial detachment during cataract surgery in a patient with diabetes is presented. The authors suggest that attention be paid to proper control of glucose prior to cataract surgery as well as focused attention during the procedure.
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