Optometry and Vision Science (OVS) Announces - June 2015
Coming in the June 2015 Optometry & Vision Science
Here are brief highlights. The online and printed copy will be available early-June. E-Publication Ahead-of-Print now available for all these articles at http://journals.lww.com/optvissci
Anthony J. Adams, OD, PhD, FAAO Editor-in-Chief
Daily Wear Increases Pseudomonas Survival at Posterior Contact Lens Surfaces
Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis remains a sight-threatening complication of contact lens wear of unclear etiology. This study shows that tear fluid at the posterior surface of soft contact lenses becomes less antimicrobial over 8 hours of wear (daily wear), but not due to loss of antimicrobial activity of control tears. Elucidating the mechanisms for reduced antimicrobial activity of the tear fluid under a contact lens during wear could lead to strategies for preventing bacterial-mediated complications.
End of Day Contact Lens Discomfort
Our authors show that short periods of wear can be experienced at any time of day without significant change in ocular discomfort and dryness. This suggests these subjective responses at the end of the day are determined by the length of time lenses are in contact with the eye, rather than the time of day at which lenses are worn.
More Demodex in Contact Lens Wearers?
Interest in Demodex mites has increased in recent years. But there had been no studies on whether Demodex is observed in contact lens wearers. Our authors found Demodex in 90% of contact lens wearers; in larger numbers than in non-contact lens wearers (65%). They used confocal microscopy, a more sensitive technique than conventional light microscopy.
Atheletes Have Better Visual Anticipation
Our authors’ study reveals that athletes in interceptive sports are superior to non-athletes in their visuomotor skills. They have broader access to various visual and complex visuo-oculomotor abilities than non-athletes. These skills likely allow athletes to more effectively coordinate visual and oculomotor abilities under demanding conditions when some visual cues are degraded.
How do Children Who are Deaf Read with Colored Overlays?
Despite lack of influence of ametropia and accommodation differences, deaf children slightly increased reading speed with yellow overlays, but not other colors. This differs from results reported for non hearing-impaired children.
Glaucomatous Disc Hemorrhages in a Large Population
In a large scale study (over 164,000 participants in South Korea 20 years or older) at a health screening, the presence of disc hemorrhage was over 225 (0.14%) with about 61% of them having localized wedge-shaped retinal nerve fiber layer defects indicative of glaucoma. While the percentage increased, as expected, with age and with presence of retinal nerve fiber defects (RNFL) there were no other statistically significant associations.
Cataract Surgical Rate Distribution Across Iran
In line with the goals of the Vision 2020 initiative to eliminate cataract blindness, more than 70% of geographic areas in Iran have achieved the minimum CSR of 3,000 or more. But a large gap still exists in less than 30% of areas. A major factor of the observed inequality is economic status.
Teleretinal Screening for Referable Macular Degeneration
The authors study showed that nonmydriatic mydriatic digital retinal imaging had excellent sensitivity and specificity (both over 80%) in identifying referable versus non-referable AMD in an existing validated telemedicine pathway for diabetic retinopathy screening.
Our authors describe the factors affecting academic performance of optometry students at a fledgling program in Mozambique. From semi-structured interviews with course lecturers and student course evaluations (questionnaire) were used with student competency evaluations to reveal the complexities surrounding the optometry student training. The resulting recommendations helped address the challenges and implementation strategies.
Fear of Falling in Vision Impairment
Experienced authors look at the impact of fear of falling in vision Impairment. While falls are common in older adults with visual impairment, there is limited evidence regarding the prevalence of fear of falling among visually impaired older adults. The authors' review examines current research linking fear of falling with visual impairment and standard clinical vision measures. It highlights the need for a better understanding of this relationship for effective interventions.
Relating Visual Acuity and Refractive Blur
While most optometrists may be confident estimating vision reduction given small refractive errors, our author proposes what he believes is a simple equation that gives clinicians a quick estimate of the relationship for up to 10D of refractive blur.
Ocular Juvenile Xanthogranuloma
Ocular Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a relatively rare disease. However, our authors report typical ocular JXG cases in three very young children involving the corneoscleral limbus, the conjunctiva and the iris respectively. The findings are reported on each. Different treatments were performed on the three cases and the authors review this field.
Chronic Bilateral Conjunctival Complications
The authors present an unusual case of a patient with chronic ocular complications of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) who developed bilateral chronic discharge secondary to recurrent inflammation of occult conjunctival diverticuli. The patient’s symptoms resolved following marsuplization of the diverticuli. The presence of a diverticulum should be considered in patients with a prior history of SJS who develop chronic relapsing purulent conjunctivitis.
Frontal Lobe Syndrome From Mucoceles
Although rarely reported in the literature our author feels it may be more common. Many of the ocular and visual complications commonly associated with paranasal sinus mucoceles (mucous-containing cysts) are illustrated in her review.