OVS Announces - June 2016

 

 
Coming in the June 2016 Optometry & Vision Science


Here are brief highlights.
The online copy will be available early-June.
E-Publication now available for all these articles at
http://journals.lww.com/optvissci

Anthony J. Adams, OD, PhD, FAAO
Associate Editor

 

Stepping Falls in the Elderly

 
Gaze position and multifocal design appear to increase the likelihood of falls in an elderly population. Using a novel technique, our authors found that gaze position ahead of the step target and blur at ground level from multifocal lens usage significantly impacts step accuracy and the risk of falling. This safety concern is particularly worrisome when the elderly are in challenging environments.
Peripheral Resolution and Detection Both Hampered by a Meridional Effect

The authors note that similar to peripheral resolution, visual detection also shows a meridional effect with a neural origin. The threshold difference seen for parallel and perpendicular gratings suggest the need to use of two oblique gratings as stimuli in alternative forced choice procedures for peripheral vision evaluation to reduce measurement variation.
Cataract Type Important in Glaucomatous Visual Fields

Although the Visual Field Index (VFI) is supposed to minimize the influence of cataract on the assessment of visual fields, the authors of this paper demonstrate that the type of cataract and the amount of opacity associated with it produce different effects on the VFI. Thus it is important to pay special attention to type of cataract that is present in glaucoma patients when assessing their visual field results.
Minimal Temporal Modulation Impact on Crowding for Peripheral VA

While the Peripheral visual acuity is reduced by the proximity of other letters, our authors found the overall benefit of temporal modulation is rather limited for peripheral reading.

A Novel 3D Stereo Display Reveals Surprise at Distance

While difficult to measure with conventional stereoacuity tests, out authors found both esotropes and exotropes have gross stereopsis at distance as a result of binocular fusion. Their 3D display stereotest was useful for quantifying stereopsis at distance.
The Natural and Clinically Dilated Pupils Act Differently

Our authors report topical ophthalmic drugs cause shifts in pupil center that do not match those produced by natural changes in pupil size.  Phenylephrine and tropicamide pupil dilation has shifts in the pupil center that follow a different time course.

Choroidal Thinning Results in Adult Eye Disorders?

Beta thalassemia major (β-TM) is a cause of severe anemia and hypoxia and can disrupt the choroid. By studying 35 patients with β-TM and 38 healthy children between ages 3 and 16 years, the authors found thinning of the choroid by OCT and they suggest this may be the reason for the development of eye disorders in older patients with beta thalassemia major.
Ghana Children Unaware of Reduced Vision

While refractive error was not only the main cause of reduced children's vision in Ghana, the children were reported to be unaware of reduced vision. The authors' study thus highlights the need for a more pragmatic approach to identifying and managing ocular problems of children in Ghana.

Overnight Orthokeratology for Myopia Treatment Does Not Increase Risk of Infection

Despite prior concerns, our authors' study found that good compliance resulted in no increased risk of infection. In fact the carriage rates of potentially pathogenic bacteria in children on orthokeratology were comparable to those using single-vision glasses.
Corneal Swelling And Pigment or Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone Addition to Cosmetic Contact Lenses

The authors study found the addition of Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) or pigments in a limbal ring design had no impact on corneal swelling or limbal/bulbar hyperemia during open-eye wear..
Color Perimetry in AMD Viable?

Our authors were unable to show a direct relation between macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and AMD. Color perimetry did not provide acceptable short-term repeatability for measuring MPOD.

Keratoprosthesis for Gelatinous Drop-Like Corneal Dystrophy

In a first large case series, the authors report the long-term outcomes of patients with rare gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD) that underwent Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis. Although visual acuity was favorably improved in all cases, 3 of the 4 eyes experienced postoperative complications, Because of the potential long-term risks, the use of Boston keratoprosthesis implantation needs to be on a case-by-case basis.

Ocular Complications of Syphilis are Rare But Important

Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by treponema pallidum rarely has ocular complications. The authors describe a case of mild, non-recurrent, unilateral anterior uveitis that initially improved on standard topical uveitis treatment, but later progressed.  Clinical suspicion and detailed sexual history are crucial for the accurate and timely diagnosis of ocular syphilis.