Peripheral retinal neovascularization has been associated with a number of disorders that can cause retinal ischemia, including the sickle cell hemoglobinopathies, Eale's disease, branch retinal vein occlusion, sarcoidosis, retinopathy of prematurity, and more recently, talc retinopathy.A 37 year old black male with a history of intravenous drug abuse and apparent talc retinopathy of the posterior pole presented for routine follow-up examination. Evaluation of the peripheral retina revealed a "sea-fan" neovascular lesion and assoicated vitreous hemorrhage in this right eye. After appropriate work-up and laboratory testing the neovascularization was determined to be secondary to talc embolization. The lesion was subsequently treated with laser photocoagulation to prevent futher hemorrhage and the possible development of tractional retinal detachment. Laboratory test results, fluorescein angiograms, and pre and post treatment stereo photographs are presented. The mechanism responsible for the development of the neovascularization, as well as the differential diagnosis and treatment options, are discussed.With the increased incidence of intravenous drug abuse it is important for the optometrist to be familiar with the associated complications in order to detect these treatable lesions.